If you could have accessed the thought balloons above the 62,462 Bears fans at Soldier Field on Sunday as kicker Cody Parkey double-doinked the potential game-winning field goal, here’s guessing the No. 1 (printable) sentiment would have been: “I wish Robbie Gould was here.”Bite the bullet, Bears fans, this is going to hurt: Gould (pronounced “Gold”) was there.Teaching these boys the history of da @bears #WPMOYCHALLENGEGOULD pic.twitter.com/r7OdoczB7S— Robbie Gould (@RobbieGould09) January …
The DNA code is protected by another code, and is read with a machine that reads a third code. This is an emerging picture from ongoing research into DNA transcription, as reported in Science.1 In the 1950s, scientists were astonished to find a code at the genetic basis of life. DNA’s four-letter alphabet, arranged into triplet codons, providing 64 combinations that could code for the 20 amino acids and “punctuation” in various ways, seemed simple and elegant (see description in our online book). Now it seems, remarkable as this mechanism is, it is way too simple. Other factors must control when and how particular genes are to be transcribed. Biochemists have also been cataloguing a huge number of post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications that take place, from the moment messenger-RNA is formed to after the protein chain is assembled. What controls the regulators? Additional codes involved in regulating gene expression have been coming to light. One was the histone code attached to DNA (11/13/2007) which may be as complex and as important as the DNA code itself (04/12/2003). Now, Science published two papers on another code attached directly to the transcriber, RNA Polymerase II. This “CTD code” is composed of tandem repeats of seven amino acids forming a tail called the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD). New work expands the previously-known number of phosphorylation states from four to eight. Since each of these amino acids can be modified by phosphorylation, patterns emerge that resemble a hexadecimal system. Because the tandem repeats vary from 17 to 52 sets on a CTD, if each phosphorylation pattern had a functional meaning, there are potentially 852 different CTD patterns – over 900 trillion trillion trillion trillion. Such a number is probably degenerate – i.e., vastly greater than the number of states that are actually needed for functional meaning. Still, the potential is there for a huge array of states that can direct the behavior of RNA Polymerase II. It also might help explain why the number of genes in the human genome was surprisingly low; perhaps the CTD code provides a way to get more transcripts out of a gene – resulting in many proteins from one gene. Experiments have shown that some distinct phosphorylation patterns do indeed change the expression of the gene. Jeffry Corden [Johns Hopkins U] wrote in the review article on the two papers,The biological role of CTD phosphorylation remains to be fully elucidated, but the emerging picture is that the pattern of CTD phosphorylation changes during RNA synthesis, allowing dynamic modification of the DNA template and processing of the nascent RNA transcript. The studies by Chapman et al.2 and by Egloff et al.3 provide both the tools to fully document CTD phosphorylation patterns and the best evidence to date that these patterns constitute a code that intersects, at the most fundamental level, with the regulation of different classes of eukaryotic genes.It appears that both DNA and its transcriber have codes, completely independent from the DNA code, affixed to them. Are they passwords forming an authentication scheme? Are they messages telling the machinery what to do? If so, what sends the messages, and what recognizes them? How is the password validated? More work into this fascinating area will surely be needed. For now, Corden said, “Together, the papers show that CTD phosphorylation is more complicated than previously thought and link, for the first time, expression of specific genes with a distinct CTD phosphorylation pattern.”1. Jeffry L. Corden, “Seven Ups the Code,” Science, 14 December 2007: Vol. 318. no. 5857, pp. 1735-1736, DOI: 10.1126/science.1152624.2. Chapman et al, “Transcribing RNA Polymerase II Is Phosphorylated at CTD Residue Serine-7,” Science, 14 December 2007: Vol. 318. no. 5857, pp. 1780-1782, DOI: 10.1126/science.1145977.3. Egloff et al, “Serine-7 of the RNA Polymerase II CTD Is Specifically Required for snRNA Gene Expression,” Science, 14 December 2007: Vol. 318. no. 5857, pp. 1777-1779, DOI: 10.1126/science.1145989.The situation just keeps getting worse for the evolutionists. None of the three papers even mentioned evolution. Who would dare? Apparently, Science Daily dared. Summarizing these papers, it said, “It would appear that, over the last 500 million years, other ways to produce highly complex organisms have evolved. Evolution has simply found more efficient ways to use the genes already there.” You may now utter a long, sarcastic groan.(Visited 11 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
IT + Project Management: A Love Affair Photo by Shereen M Massive Non-Desk Workforce is an Opportunity fo… Tags:#enterprise#Trends 3 Areas of Your Business that Need Tech Now Related Posts klint finley Cognitive Automation is the Immediate Future of… Over the weekend we told you about Oracle’s killer quarter. One of the interesting things about how well Oracle is doing is that a large part of the company’s revenue growth is coming from new licenses for its proprietary database software. Even as database types are diversifying and open source competitors step up their game, Oracle is still crushing it.David Linthicum wrote earlier this year that the won’t open source won’t gain in the cloud. I disagree. Plenty of open source software is being used to build clouds. But I think what we’re seeing is that the cloud isn’t curbing the adoption of proprietary software.Are you still using proprietary databases in your enterprise? Are you expanding the use of proprietary databases, or phasing them out?
Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss PLAY LIST 02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games Prosecutor Dan Fisher said it was a coordinated mission and “orchestrated attack” after the victim sent text messages to the Morris twins’ mother that angered them.Defense lawyers insisted the twins did not participate in the attack and questioned the reliability and financial motives of the man who was beaten. The lawyer for Marcus Morris, Timothy Eckstein, said witness statements that form the basis of the case are “entirely inconsistent and incompatible with the truth.”FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSBoxers Pacquiao, Petecio torchbearers for SEA Games openingThe twin brothers face the possibility of prison time and discipline from the NBA, including a minimum 10-game suspension, if they are found guilty.The two-week trial also threatens to disrupt the start of their 2017 NBA season with training camp set to begin for both players on Sept. 26. Argentine bishop appears at court hearing on abuse charges Two of the other co-defendants pleaded guilty Wednesday to the same charges. That leaves the Morris brothers and one other defendant standing trial this week. The third defendant is Gerald Bowman, a former University of Southern California football player.Police say Hood was leaving a high school basketball game when he was approached by a friend of the Morris brothers. Hood told Phoenix police the man was speaking to him when he was punched in the back of the head.Hood ran to his car but fell down, before the men punched and kicked him repeatedly, authorities say. All five left in a Rolls Royce Phantom as bystanders began to appear.Hood provided an account of the attack as the first prosecution witness Monday, calling it “the most terrifying moment in my life.”He said Marcus Morris kicked him “relentlessly” and Bowman “just jumped straight up and landed on me with two feet.” Hood previously told police he was attacked by Markieff Morris, but recalled on the stand Monday that he later clarified his statement and said he could not be sure whether Markieff participated in the beating.Hood told police he suffered a fractured nose, abrasions and a large bump on his head.At the time of the attack, the 6-foot-9 Morris twins were teammates on the Phoenix Suns.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next FILE – In this Oct. 17, 2013, file photo, official Ron Garretson talks with Phoenix Suns forwards Marcus Morris center and his twin brother, Markieff, before the Suns’ NBA preseason basketball game against the Sacramento Kings in Sacramento, Calif. (AP Photo/Rich Pedroncelli, File)PHOENIX — NBA players Marcus and Markieff Morris went on trial Monday on felony assault charges stemming from a 2015 beating that prosecutors labeled as an “orchestrated attack” and defense lawyers dismissed as a ploy to get money out of the athletes.Opening statements began with prosecutors saying the two NBA stars and three other men each had a role in a beating that left a former acquaintance with a broken nose and other injuries.ADVERTISEMENT Tyson Fury urges UK Anti-Doping for resolution Winter storm threatens to scramble Thanksgiving travel plans Ethel Booba on hotel’s clarification that ‘kikiam’ is ‘chicken sausage’: ‘Kung di pa pansinin, baka isipin nila ok lang’ MOST READ The Boston Celtics acquired Marcus Morris from Detroit in the offseason as part of an overhaul of their roster, while Markieff was a solid contributor for the Washington Wizards last year.The Morris brothers are accused of helping three other people beat 36-year-old Erik Hood, who has known the twins since they were promising teenage AAU players.In youth basketball parlance, Hood was known as a “runner” — someone who connects promising young athletes with representatives and agents in hopes of getting a cut of a lucrative NBA contract, Eckstein said.He said Hood viewed the Morris twins as his “lottery ticket” after they went onto a successful career at the University of Kansas. They had a falling out while the Morris brothers were at Kansas, and they were later drafted into the NBA.Defense lawyers don’t dispute that the beating took place, but they say the Morris brothers weren’t involved and believe Hood was trying to pin blame on them for financial gain.ADVERTISEMENT Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ ‘A complete lie:’ Drilon refutes ‘blabbermouth’ Salo’s claims View comments Hotel says PH coach apologized for ‘kikiam for breakfast’ claim Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Trump to designate Mexican drug cartels as terrorist groups No more menthol cigarettes: New ban on tobacco, vape flavors LATEST STORIES
The Canadian Press EDMONTON — An Alberta First Nation is suing the province over development approvals that the band says threaten sacred land the government has promised to protect.The Fort McKay First Nation filed the lawsuit in an Edmonton court late last week.It says Alberta has approved or is about to approve developments that encroach on Moose Lake.The First Nation says that area is one of the last remaining in its traditional territory where it can pursue traditional practices.The government released a draft plan in February that would offer the area some protection.But over the summer, the provincial energy regulator OK’d an oilsands project that would come within two kilometres of the lake.No one from the government was immediately available for comment.