More information: senseable.mit.edu/aida/ In the AIDA 2.0 system all of the information that the driver needs will be placed onto the dashboard and surrounding areas. While this will make the information easily accessible, it may also lead to potential distractions on the road. The new virtual display now consists of the entirety of the dashboard, the console, the instrument panel, and the wing mirrors. Working in conjunction, they create one virtual display that is able to update itself as you move. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (PhysOrg.com) — If you remember the AIDA (Affective, Intelligent Driving Agent) system, which came out roughly a year and a half ago, then you remember that it was a joint project, made by MIT and Volkswagen, that put a robot head in your dashboard. The head gave driving directions to end users. The newest version, AIDA 2.0, has gotten rid of the talking head, and turned the entire view of the car into one large navigation display. Explore further While this idea does seem really cool, like something out of a Tron movie, it does stretch the drivers view, and could potentially distract from the stretch of road in front of the driver, and the other cars on the road. On the bright side, the system is both adaptive and considerate. The system will, over time, learn facts about you such as the types of places where you like to eat and the activities that you are interested in. Then, it will search through information about the area and tell you about things that you may be interested in that are close by. As with any adaptive system, the more you use it, the better it will become. No word has been given yet about when consumers will see the AIDA 2.0 system in cars. © 2010 PhysOrg.com Citation: AIDA 2.0 brings a full panel, plus some, location display to drivers (w/ video) (2011, May 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-05-aida-full-panel-drivers-video.html AIDA Robot Aims To Change The Way We Interact With Our Car (w/ Video)
Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Phys.org) —Fifteenth and sixteenth century Chinese workers transported enormous stones to the Forbidden City by carrying them in sledges along roads of artificial ice, according to Jiang Li of the University of Science and Technology in Beijing and his colleagues. The researchers translated a document showing that in 1557, workers used this method to transport a 123-ton stone more than 70 kilometers. Li and his team say that dragging large stones over ice, rather than over dry ground, reduced the amount of friction created and the number of workers needed for the job. The study appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Construction of China’s Forbidden City, in present-day Beijing, began in 1417. The home of China’s emperors for almost 500 years, The Forbidden City incorporates stones weighing more than 100 tons extracted from the Dashiwo quarry, 70 kilometers away. The heaviest of these is the Large Stone Carving, which weighs more than 300 tons.Previous researchers assumed that the Chinese used wheeled vehicles to move the stones. The Chinese were using wheeled vehicles for transport by around 1500 BC, and there are no images of workers dragging stones over dry ground. However, none of the wheeled vehicles built before 1596 could carry more than 95 tons. Although some books mention that workers used an artificial ice path to transport the Large Stone Carving, there are no detailed historical records of this event.Li and his colleagues translated a Chinese text written in 1618 that describes how workers brought a 123-ton stone to the Forbidden City in 1557, during a mid-winter renovation project. The workers placed the stone on a sledge, which they then dragged along an artificial ice path, created by pouring well water onto the ground and then allowing the water to freeze. They dug wells every half kilometer. By pouring water over ice that had already frozen, they created a liquid surface that decreased the friction between the sledge and the ice. The workers had time to move the sledge across the liquid film before it froze.The team calculated that it would have taken 1,537 men to drag the load over dry ground. Dragging a sledge over ice would have required 338 men. Lubricating the ice would have reduced the workforce to 46 men. An ice road also eliminated the need to lay out wooden planks to create a smooth surface.Architects of the reconstruction debated whether to use sledges or mule-driven wagons. They chose sledges because they were safer and more reliable than wagons, although sledges required more time, money and manpower.The research suggests that, at the time, Chinese engineers knew more about friction than Western engineers did. Workers likely slid massive stones, such as this 300-ton marble carving in front of the Hall of Supreme Harmony in the Forbidden City, Beijing, China, along artificial ice paths. Credit: Chui Hu More information: Ice lubrication for moving heavy stones to the Forbidden City in 15th- and 16th-century China, PNAS, www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/10/30/1309319110AbstractLubrication plays a crucial role in reducing friction for transporting heavy objects, from moving a 60-ton statue in ancient Egypt to relocating a 15,000-ton building in modern society. Although in China spoked wheels appeared ca. 1500 B.C., in the 15th and 16th centuries sliding sledges were still used in transporting huge stones to the Forbidden City in Beijing. We show that an ice lubrication technique of water-lubricated wood-on-ice sliding was used instead of the common ancient approaches, such as wood-on-wood sliding or the use of log rollers. The technique took full advantage of the natural properties of ice, such as sufficient hardness, flatness, and low friction with a water film. This ice-assisted movement is more efficient for such heavy-load and low-speed transportation necessary for the stones of the Forbidden City. The transportation of the huge stones provides an early example of ice lubrication and complements current studies of the high-speed regime relevant to competitive ice sports. The mechanism that puts the curl in the curling stone revealed Citation: Workers dragged Forbidden City stones along roads of artificial ice (2013, November 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-11-workers-forbidden-city-stones-roads.html © 2013 Phys.org Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Journal information: Nature Citation: A new way to create macrolides—from scratch—may help in battle against bacterial resistance (2016, May 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-05-macrolidesfrom-scratchmay-bacterial-resistance.html For many years, the go-to drugs of choice for treating a variety of bacterial infections has been macrolides, which are all drugs that have been created by altering a natural form of erythromycin—but in recent years, bacteria have become resistant to many of the drugs that have been developed. New ones have been slow in coming, due to the difficulty in finding new ways to alter the original bacteria which means R&D costs have been rising. This development has led to near-panic in the health community as it appears that if something does not change soon, the arsenal of weapons used to fight many infections will be vastly depleted. In this new effort, the researchers report that they have found a new way to create new variations of macrolides that does not require using native erythromycin as a source—instead, they create them from scratch. This development means that many more variants can be created at far lower cost, helping to keep ahead of bacterial resistance.To create new macrolides, the team reports, they used a method that allows for modular building, which they liken to the way cell phones are made—they start by building small-chemical blocks and then “weld” them together using a process that requires very few steps. They report also that the technique can be applied on a multigram scale, which means enough can be created at a time for use in experiments geared towards testing the results in killing bacteria.To date, the team has produced 300 macrolides using their technique, which include some that have had already been created using the original method. They report that some have already been tested to see how well they fight bacteria and have met with some initial success. They acknowledge that a lot more work needs to be done to find out if drugs produced using the method are truly effective in fighting bacterial infections and if so, if they will prove to be safe for use in humans. Erythromycin. The macrolide ring is the lactone (cyclic ester) at upper-left. Credit: Public Domain More information: Ian B. Seiple et al. A platform for the discovery of new macrolide antibiotics, Nature (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nature17967AbstractThe chemical modification of structurally complex fermentation products, a process known as semisynthesis, has been an important tool in the discovery and manufacture of antibiotics for the treatment of various infectious diseases. However, many of the therapeutics obtained in this way are no longer effective, because bacterial resistance to these compounds has developed. Here we present a practical, fully synthetic route to macrolide antibiotics by the convergent assembly of simple chemical building blocks, enabling the synthesis of diverse structures not accessible by traditional semisynthetic approaches. More than 300 new macrolide antibiotic candidates, as well as the clinical candidate solithromycin, have been synthesized using our convergent approach. Evaluation of these compounds against a panel of pathogenic bacteria revealed that the majority of these structures had antibiotic activity, some efficacious against strains resistant to macrolides in current use. The chemistry we describe here provides a platform for the discovery of new macrolide antibiotics and may also serve as the basis for their manufacture. © 2016 Phys.org Explore further Linking antibiotic to antibody found able to kill MRSA hiding in mice cells (Phys.org)—A team of researchers at Harvard University has found a way to create new macrolides—a class of drugs used to fight bacterial infections. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes their approach and why they believe it might be useful in keeping ahead of bacterial resistance until something more revolutionary comes along. Ming Yan and Phil Baran with The Scripps Research Institute, offer a News & Views article outlining the work done by the team and why they believe the new technique may help medical researchers keep up with bacterial evolution. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Unraveling biological networks (Phys.org)—A trio of math and computer scientists has developed a means for developing generalized frameworks that allow for clustering networks based on higher-order connectivity patterns. In their paper published in the journal Science, Austin Benson and Jure Leskovec with Stanford University and David Gleich with Purdue University outline their framework ideas and offer real life examples of ways their techniques can be applied to help understand complex networks in simpler ways. Nataša Pržulj and Noël Malod-Dognin with University College London offer an analysis of the work done by the trio in a Perspectives piece in the same journal issue. Journal information: Science Social network diagram. Credit: Daniel Tenerife/Wikipedia More information: A. R. Benson et al. Higher-order organization of complex networks, Science (2016). DOI: 10.1126/science.aad9029AbstractNetworks are a fundamental tool for understanding and modeling complex systems in physics, biology, neuroscience, engineering, and social science. Many networks are known to exhibit rich, lower-order connectivity patterns that can be captured at the level of individual nodes and edges. However, higher-order organization of complex networks—at the level of small network subgraphs—remains largely unknown. Here, we develop a generalized framework for clustering networks on the basis of higher-order connectivity patterns. This framework provides mathematical guarantees on the optimality of obtained clusters and scales to networks with billions of edges. The framework reveals higher-order organization in a number of networks, including information propagation units in neuronal networks and hub structure in transportation networks. Results show that networks exhibit rich higher-order organizational structures that are exposed by clustering based on higher-order connectivity patterns. As the authors note, it is not difficult to make out patterns in very small networks, a person trying to do so need only watch the system at work for a period of time. It is when networks become bigger and more complex that they become unwieldy. Even in such cases, however, low-order patterns are often still easy to discern—counting nodes or edges for example, offers some degree of network size, though doing so tells you very little about what the network does and how—that is where high-order organizational principles come into play. Unfortunately attempts to create a means for providing more information or detail about such systems has to date, not met with much success. In this new effort, the researchers describe a framework they have developed that offers some of the pattern recognition seen in smaller networks, with more complex networks.They start, Pržulj and Malod-Dognin note, with one of the more common higher-order structures known as small network subgraphs, which they refer to as network motifs—those that are statistically significant can be used as building blocks for the building of a mathematical framework, which is of course what the researchers have done. Relationship identification among the motifs was done by applying clustering algorithms. The result is a framework that highlights and/or identifies which of the motifs are the most critical when a network is in operation.The trio tested their framework technique by using it to analyze part of the neuronal network of a roundworm, and report that it revealed the particular cluster of 20 neurons responsible for performing actions such as standing and wiggling its head. They also gained insights into air traffic patterns by using it to perform an analysis of airports in the U.S. and Canada. They suggest such frameworks may be used in a wide variety of applications. Citation: Mathematical framework offers a more detailed understanding of network relationships (2016, July 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-07-mathematical-framework-network-relationships.html Explore further © 2016 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Auroras on Earth occur when magnetic reconnections (magnetic fields colliding) cause solar flares on the sun. When it happens, plasma carrying a magnetic field is shot out into space, some of which makes its way to Earth. When it collides with our planet’s magnetic field, auroras occur. The same process has been observed on Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus.In this new effort, the researchers were studying data sent back from the Cassini spacecraft, which orbited Saturn for 13 years. They were looking specifically at data that would provide more information regarding magnetic reconnections on the planet—prior research had shown that they occur on the dayside of the magnetopause (the point where the planet’s magnetic field meets the solar wind). There was also evidence that they occur on the nightside of its magnetodisk, which is a plasma ring formed near the equator by water and other materials emitted from its moons. But prior research had also suggested that there would be no reconnections on the dayside of the planet’s magnetodisk because the solar winds made the ot too thick for them to occur. But the researchers found evidence of reconnections in the magnetodisk at noontime anyway. The researchers suggest this apparent anomaly is likely due to Saturn’s high spin rate (a day is just 10 hours). The high rate, they note, likely compresses the magnetodisk , making it thin enough for reconnections to occur. The team also suggests that the reconnections they measured appear to be strong enough to create auroras.The researchers suggest that their findings indicate that unknown auroras might be happening on other planets as well, but have been overlooked because planet spin speed was not factored into calculations. They further suggest that similar reconnections might also be behind some unexplained pulses seen from Jupiter. Journal information: Nature Astronomy More information: R. L. Guo et al. Rotationally driven magnetic reconnection in Saturn’s dayside, Nature Astronomy (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41550-018-0461-9AbstractMagnetic reconnection is a key process that explosively accelerates charged particles, generating phenomena such as nebular flares, solar flares and stunning aurorae. In planetary magnetospheres, magnetic reconnection has often been identified on the dayside magnetopause and in the nightside magnetodisc, where thin-current-sheet conditions are conducive to reconnection. The dayside magnetodisc is usually considered thicker than the nightside due to the compression of solar wind, and is therefore not an ideal environment for reconnection. In contrast, a recent statistical study of magnetic flux circulation strongly suggests that magnetic reconnection must occur throughout Saturn’s dayside magnetosphere. Additionally, the source of energetic plasma can be present in the noon sector of giant planetary magnetospheres. However, so far, dayside magnetic reconnection has only been identified at the magnetopause. Here, we report direct evidence of near-noon reconnection within Saturn’s magnetodisc using measurements from the Cassini spacecraft. The measured energetic electrons and ions (ranging from tens to hundreds of keV) and the estimated energy flux of ~2.6 mW m–2 within the reconnection region are sufficient to power aurorae. We suggest that dayside magnetodisc reconnection can explain bursty phenomena in the dayside magnetospheres of giant planets, which can potentially advance our understanding of quasi-periodic injections of relativistic electrons6 and auroral pulsations.Press release: phys.org/wire-news/289642898/m … anetary-differe.html Hubble spots auroras on Uranus This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Saturn found to have noontime auroras (2018, June 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-06-saturn-noontime-auroras.html
Ram Bijoy- Ankia Naat was performed for the art and culture lovers of the city at Mavalankar Hall on 24 May. This is an endeavor by the Assam Tourism Development Corporation, Government of Assam in association with Raginee-a socio-cultural organization of Guwahati to showcase the rich and glorious cultural legacy of the state Assam.Women performing an Ankia Naat which is considered to be a religious performance is self-explanatory of women empowerment and liberal culture of Assam. Till 1949 these Ankia Naataks were performed only by men. Thus the Capital witnessed this special treat that had Assam’s best known actors gracing the stage. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Ram Bijoy was designed and directed by Madhurima Choudhury. Ankia Naat Bhaona is a traditional art form of the 15th century – A style of drama conceived by Srimanta Sankardeva (1449-1568) that displayed spiritual music encompassing a combination of dance and dramaturgy.Ustad Amzad Ali Khan and his wife Subhalakshmi, Actor Adil Hussain, Hemoprova Saikia were also present along with other dignitaries.Ram Bijoy – Ankia Naat performed by a group of women who are top actresses of Assam including Moloya Goswami, Nishita Goswami, Madhurima Chaudhuri, Rasarani Chetana Das and Barsha Rani Bishaya. The play was performed in Brajavali – concoction of Assamese, Hindi, Oriya and Maithili. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix Ankia Naataks were performed only by men, even the female characters were enacted by male actors till 1949. Women performing an Ankia Naat which is considered to be a religious performance is self-explanatory of women empowerment and liberal culture of Assam.‘I wanted to turn the tables. These are the times of women revolution, this women driven performance aids in empowering us’, said Madhurima Choudhury, designer and director of the play who essayed the role of Lord Ram.‘After my marriage I got the opportunity to explore the music of Sankardev. There is a need to recognize his contributions across the country.’ Choudhury added.
As Khanna unrolled his life’s hardships and his rise from the streets of Amritsar in 1971 to being a Michelin starred chef in New York infront of the starry-eyed girls, they could not help fawning and talking about how dreamy the host of Masterchef was. One of them even recited a poem she had written on the star chef and his life’s journey and was appraised with a hug from Khanna. However, the voice of reason at the event, Vinod Dua, finally steered the conversation to the book which harbours the taste of Amritsar.Amritsar: Flavours of the Golden City takes you on a culinary and cultural journey through his hometown, Amritsar. From its early days as Ramdaspur to the war of 1971. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’From his mother’s preferred pulao recipe to the gardens of the Ranjit Singh Museum. From the famous Maqbool Road kulchas to his Biji’s favourite hand-churned ice cream recipe. This book is a guide to the city as Khanna knows it.More than just a cookbook, Khanna shares the history and culture of his hometown peppered with anecdotes from his childhood. He examines Punjabi cuisine in its historical, cultural, and spiritual context. For foodies, Khanna provides the definitive guide of the best street-food eateries. This book, featuring stunning visuals, is a must-have for gourmands and non-gourmands travelling to Amritsar.